Smart Grid – a dynamic electrical system where at any moment power flows from an available generating station to consumers and the network architecture gets constantly reconfigured to meet momentary power needs and power availability. The direction of power flow in the transmission lines are constantly changing. It is characterized as frequent “make” and “break” dynamic architecture.
The idea behind smart grids is increasing efficiency, availability and reducing cost. Therefore, it is expected that in a smart grid faults will be identified and solved and automatically heal by themselves. The quality of power and voltage rate is expected to be constantly monitored and managed. Consumption will be optimized and minimized and adjustable to peak and off-peak demand periods.
Reliable operation of a Smart Grid means constant on going synchronization and compensation processes that are heavily dependent on communication. To ensure that a multi-users and multi-generators system sustains voltage levels, frequencies and steady state, safely and efficiently it must be controlled. As such, the anticipated load and the available power at any moment must be known, or else any short circuit may lead to a voltage dip and when fixed to oscillations. Accordingly, in a chaotic state, a loss of a generating station will drop voltage while a loss of load will result in a voltage rise.